6 Sequence – Black Is Beautiful

Civil Rights Movement

  • Martin Luther King
  • Rosa Parks – Bus Boycotts
  • Brown vs. Board of Education
  • Freedom Riders
  • Sit-ins
  • Jim Crow Laws

Write an article:

http://www.my-teacher.fr/expression-ecrite-en-anglais/ecrire-un-article-en-anglais.html

Check out the Civil Rights movement here:

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-movement

Learn about it here:

Rosa Parks:

Martin Luther King

Jim Crow Laws

Brown vs. Board of Education

Freedom Riders

Sit-Ins

27 thoughts on “6 Sequence – Black Is Beautiful

  1. There is not even a century, the united states was a country full of racism. Racism and ethnic discrimination in the United States has been a major issue since the colonial era and the slave era.

    Several racist measures were taken during this period :

    The Jim Crow laws :

    The Jim Crow laws were racial segregation state and local laws enacted after the Reconstruction period in Southern United States that continued in force until 1965 mandating de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern U.S. states.

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka :

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.

    To combat this discrimination, several people came together and made a big gathering : The civil rights movement

    The civil rights movement in the American South was one of the most significant and successful social movements in the modern world. Black Georgians formed part of this southern movement for full civil rights and the wider national struggle for racial equality.

    There were many groups of civil rights activists, the most famous is the Freedom Riders who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and following years to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960) which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional

    Among those who defended the rights of blacks, there are Rosa park, Martin Luther King etc.

    Rosa Parks was an African-American Civil Rights activist, whom the United States Congress called “the first lady of civil rights” and “the mother of the freedom movement”.

    On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake’s order to give up her seat in the colored section to a white passenger, after the white section was filled.

    Martin Luther King as an American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using non violent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs.

    To protest, the activists used many techniques, the famous one is the sit-in which is a form of direct action that involves one or more people occupying an area for a protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change.
    In sit-ins, protesters usually seat themselves at a strategic location (inside a restaurant, in a street to block it, in a government or corporate office, and so on). They remain until they are evicted, usually by force, or arrested, or until their requests have been met. Sit-ins have historically been a highly successful form of protest because they cause disruption that draws attention to the protest and by proxy the protesters’ cause.

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  2. The Civil Rights Movement is African-American movement , mass protest movement against racial segregation and discrimination in the southern United States that came to national prominence during the mid-1950s. I personaly think that this movement is very important to show the example liberty and equality for all over the world .

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  3. Personally I think that black people in America were abused . Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King fought for the African-American Civil Rights Movement , Rosa Parks was the first lady of Civil Rights and MLK was an activist and a leader in the African-Americans Civil Right movement .

    The southern states passed the Jim Crow Laws which related to segregation. This meant that white people and black people had to live separately. The areas of society affected by segregation included churches, hospitals, theatres and schools.

    Black people had the worst jobs and the poorest standard of education. Black people also found it difficult to register to vote because they had to paid in order to be able to vote, and most black people were too poor to pay the tax. In order to be able to vote, people had to prove that they could read difficult extracts. If black people passed these tests, they would then be threatened and attacked so that they could not vote.

    In the movie “the butler” we can see the difference between black and white peaple espacialy in sit-in scene where black people sat in a white people place to protest against the rules .A lot of things have changed since the end of racial segregation….. now the United States president is a black person and black people have the same rights as the white people .

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  4. MLK
    ROSA PARKS
    Civil Rights Movement
    Freedom Riders
    Sit ins
    Brown VS. Board of Education

    Few years ago , USA was known for being one of the most racial country. A lot of laws were established during a period.

    -Civil Rights movement were social movements whose goals were to end the segregation and also the discrimination against black people ( between 1954 and 1968).

    -The civil rights activists who rode into buses into the segregated USA in 1961 were called FREEDOM RIDERS.

    -Brown v Board of Education of TOPEKA was a landmark case in which the Supreme Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black/white students to be unconstitutional

    -The Jim Crow Laws are a series of orders and regulations promulgated in municipalities or the States of the South of the United States between 1876 and 1965. These laws, which constitute one of the main elements of the racial segregation in the United States, distinguished the citizens according to their racial membership and while admitting their equality of law they imposed a segregation of swear in all the places and the public services.

    Two black people are famous for their fight against those laws .

    Martin Luther King was an american minister and activist and he’s known for being the leader in the african american civil rights movement. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott.ML King led an unsuccessful 1962 struggle against segregation in Georgia (the Albany Movement)..MLK also helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. There, he established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history.

    ROSA PARKS was an African-American Civil Rights activist called ‘ the first lady of civil rights ‘ and also ‘ the mother of the freedom movement ‘. She’s known because she refused to give her place in a bus for a white passenger.

    Black history is turning point in the history of USA.

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  5. A few years ago , USA was known for being one of the most racist countries. A lot of laws were established during a period.

    -Civil Rights movement were social movements whose goals were to end the segregation and also the discrimination against black people ( between 1954 and 1968).

    -Brown v Board of Education of TOPEKA was a landmark case in which the Supreme Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black/white students to be unconstitutional.

    -The Jim Crow Laws are a series of orders and regulations promulgated in municipalities or the States of the South of the United States between 1876 and 1965. These laws, which constitute one of the main elements of the racial segregation in the United States, distinguished the citizens according to their racial membership and while admitting their equality of law they imposed a segregation of swear in all the places and the public services.

    Against these laws :

    –The sit-in is a motionless appearance. It is the method of direct intervention that consists in sitting down on public roads, in a public building or a private institution and in staying as long as possible on the scene

    -The civil rights activists who rode into buses into the segregated USA in 1961 were called FREEDOM RIDERS.

    Two black people are famous for their fight against those laws .

    Martin Luther King was an american minister and activist and he’s known for being the leader in the african american civil rights movement. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott.ML King led an unsuccessful 1962 struggle against segregation in Georgia (the Albany Movement)..MLK also helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. There, he established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history.

    ROSA PARKS was an African-American Civil Rights activist called ‘ the first lady of civil rights ‘ and also ‘ the mother of the freedom movement ‘. She’s known because she refused to give her place in a bus for a white passenger.

    Black history is turning point in the history of USA.

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  6. Martin Luther King, Jr., was born on January 15th, 1929 and died on April 4th, 1968. He was an American, activist, humanitarian, and leader of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is known for his important role in the advancement of civil rights in America using nonviolent civil disobedience. MLK led « The Montgomery Bus Boycott » where Rosa Parks was arrested. This boycott consisted of refusing to give up the bus seat to a white person. It lasted for 385 days and allowed MLK to be a national figure and the best-known spokesman of the civil rights movement. The goal of those African American was to stop the racial segregation on all Montgomery public buses, indeed, on all US public buses. This activist tried to establish the equality in the whole world and to cease the racism the African-americans suffered ; it’s the African-American Civil Rights Movement. MLK was killed in Memphis and for sure, even if he died in bad circumstances, he is still one of the bravest person in earth who had allowed millions of people to live freely and to be accepted. With reference to Rosa Louise McCauley Parks, she was born on February 4, 1913 ans she died on October 24, 2005. She was also an African-American Civil Rights activist, whom the United States Congress called “the first lady of civil rights” and “the mother of the freedom movement”. Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in the beggining of the African-American Civil Rights Movement, in 1961. There was an action similar to the The Montgomery Bus Boycott who involved African Amercians people occupying restaurants and protesting to promote the change. Plus, the Brown vs. Board of Education was the United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared separating of public schools for black and white students.

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  7. In the 1930 s, white Americans considered black as inferior human beings and treated them like slaves.

    This has led to a revolution reclaiming civil rights for black people.

    One the major leaders of this fight were Martin Luther King (1929 – 1968) an American Baptist minister, activist and humanitarian, and Rosa Parks , a seamstress who became a symbol of the struggle against racial segregation in the United States . She was called “mother of the civil rights movement ” by the US congress.

    Both of them were members of the African –American Civil Rights Movement, which was a mass protest movement against racial segregation and discrimination in the southern United States that came to national prominence during the mid-1950s.
    This movement had its roots in the centuries-long efforts of African slaves and their descendants to resist racial and abolish the institution of slavery.

    Among the actions of this movement‘s activists, we found the freedom rides. Indeed, they used interstate buses to test the Supreme Court Boynton v . Virginia , which outlawed segregation in transportation. The first Freedom Ride left Washington on May, 4 1961 , and was due to arrive in New Orleans on 17 .The activists were arrested in the southern states on the pretext of violating local laws and Jim Crow laws (The Jim Crow laws were racial segregation state and local laws enacted after the Reconstruction period in Southern United States ).

    They also made some sits ins, like the ones in Greensboro in 1960.
    It was actually a series of non-violent direct action to end racial segregation in Greensboro restaurants countertops in North Carolina.

    The major victory of the movement, will probably stay the Brown v. Board of Education ,a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional .

    Thus, thanks to all the actions made by the African American civil rights movement , black Americans were able to get all their rights and to be respected as the rest of the population.

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  8. The Civil Rights Movements protested against segregation in USA (especially in the South) in 1954-1968 by using nonviolent methods, direct action, voter registration, boycotts, civil resistance/disobedience or community education. The principal actors were Martin Luther King, John Lewis, Rosa Parks and Ella Baker. The results of this movement were:
    in 1964=>Civil Rights Act
    in 1965=>Voting Rights Act
    in 1968=>Fair Housing Act

    The Jim Crow laws were racial segregation state and local laws in the South of the USA after the Reconstruction period between 1876 and 1965.

    Rosa Parks (1913-2005) was an African-American Civil Rights activist in USA Congress. Her nickname was “the first lady of civil rights” or “the mother of the freedom movement”

    A sit-in or sit-down is a manner to protest by standing still in front of a monument or on the road and the goals are to promote political, social or economic change. The Freedom Riders did that against segregation in transportation and other areas. Their first protest was in 1961.

    Brown V. Board of Education (1954) was a landmark United States Supreme Court ruling that ruled out the black-white separation of children at school.

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  9. .The civil rights movement in the United States is about the campaign of African Americans. Because of their skin color, they did not have the same rights that white people did for a long time. This injustice on African Americans led to a time of social unrest. In the 1950’s and 1960’s, blacks rose up to fight against the social systems and public authorities that had taken these rights away. Many whites supported their campaign.After the Civil War (1861-65), slavery was ended and African Americans were made citizens and got the right to vote.However, there was so much prejudice against blacks that these new laws were often ignored. In the southern states many laws were passed that separated blacks from whites in public. They were treated as second class citizensThe modern civil rights movement began in the 1950s. In 1955, a black woman in Alabama named Rosa Parks refused to give her seat on a bus to a white man. For this act of protest, Parks was arrested. The blacks no longer wanted to “sit at the back of the bus,” and started a boycott of the bus system. They chose a young minister, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., to lead their protest.

    The boycott was very important for the African Americans. It encouraged them in other cities to protest for civil rights. Dr. King was a great spokesperson who spoke out on radio and television programs and urged blacks to take part in so-called freedom rides and sit-ins. Dr. King and thousands of others were often put into prison for these protests.

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  10. Black History month is a celebration by all Americans to remember that black people weren’t always equal with the others.This is an event celebrated in February by all Americans even in sport. For example some basketball players wear “BLACK HISTORY MONTHS” shirt during warmups. But “black people” didn’t acquire their right easily, it was an accumulation of a lot of fights many people had to struggle with.
    This fight is called the Civil Rights Movement. It began at the end of the 20th century with a lot of famous people that left their mark on America’s History. Let’s talk first about Jim crow laws : these laws, which were one of the main elements of racial segregation in the United States, distinguished citizens according to their skin color and they imposed segregation in all public places. To fight these laws Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King, Jr. began to protest. Rosa Parks is the First Lady of civil rights, she resisted to bus segregation and influenced the Montgomery Bus Boycott. So on, she had to go to jail but didn’t leave her beliefs. Martin Luther King, Jr. was an activist, humanist and the biggest leader of the Civil Rights Movement. He led the boycott that Rosa created because she was arrested and was supported by John F. Kennedy. He was inspired by the great Ghandi and he said a famous sentence that almost everybody knows : “I have a dream”.
    To express their anger against Jim crow Laws, a lot of people did sit-ins: it’s a type of gathering where protesters usually sat at a strategic location ;inside a restaurant, in a street to block it, in a government or corporate office… Then there are the freedom riders, some pacific activist that protested by non respecting the segregation laws. People were very upset against all these laws especially by the Brown v. Board of Education, a segregation in schools : black kids couldn’t study with white ones.
    Thanks to all these people that had to suffer to improve the futur of America. But even with such improvement there is still racism, not only in america but also in other countries.

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  11. American Civils Rights Movement or 1960s Civil Rights Movement encompasses sovial movements in the United States whose goals were to end racial segretion and discrimination againts black Americans and to secure legal recognition and federal protection of the citizenship rights enumerated in the Constitution and federal law.

    The movement was chracterized by major campaigns of civil resistance.
    between 1955 ans 1968, acts of movement protesst and civil disobedience produced crisis situations and productive between activistes ans gouvernment authorities.

    The Jim Crow Laws were racial segregation state ansd local laws enacted after the Reconstitution period in Southern United States that continued in the force until 1965 mondating de jure racial segregation in all public facilitites in Southern U.S states, starting in 1890s with a “separate but equal” Jim Crow Laws mandated the segregation of public schools, public places ans public transport, ans the segregation of restrooms restaurants and drinking fountains for whites and blacks.

    Brownvs. Board of Education of Topoka, was a kandmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared State Laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.

    Civils rights activist Rosa Parks was born on February 4 1913. Her to surrender her seat to a white passenger pn a Montgonery, Alabama bus spurred a city-wide boycott. Rosa Parks received many accolades during her lifetime includign the NAACP’S highest award.

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  12. By refusing to give up her seat to a white man on a Montgomery, Alabama, city bus in 1955, black seamstress Rosa Parks (1913—2005) helped initiate the civil rights movement in the United States. The leaders of the local black community organized a bus boycott that began the day Parks was convicted of violating the segregation laws. Led by a young Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., the boycott lasted more than a year—during which Parks not coincidentally lost her job—and ended only when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that bus segregation was unconstitutional. Over the next half-century, Parks became a nationally recognized symbol of dignity and strength in the struggle to end entrenched racial segregation.
    Brown v. Board of Education (1954), now acknowledged as one of the greatest Supreme Court decisions of the 20th century, unanimously held that the racial segregation of children in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Although the decision did not succeed in fully desegregating public education in the United States, it put the Constitution on the side of racial equality and galvanized the nascent civil rights movement into a full revolution.
    American civil rights movement, mass protest movement against racial segregation and discrimination in the southern United States that came to national prominence during the mid-1950s. This movement had its roots in the centuries-long efforts of African slaves and their descendants to resist racial oppression and abolish the institution of slavery. Although American slaves were emancipated as a result of the Civil War and were then granted basic civil rights through the passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution, struggles to secure federal protection of these rights continued during the next century. Through nonviolent protest, the civil rights movement of the 1950s and ’60s broke the pattern of public facilities’ being segregated by “race” in the South and achieved the most important breakthrough in equal-rights legislation for African Americans since the Reconstruction period (1865–77).

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  13. America is a country which is known for it slave history. Slavery was abolished in the united states in 1865, but it didn’t make black Americans and white American equal, this segregation was alive until the civil right movement, thanks to militant and actions taken by protesters.
    The most famous person who fought racism is surely Martin Luther King, who was a baptist and who participated in the peaceful protest movement. He is also famous for his speech in front of the Lincoln Memorial ” I have a dream “. Among those protesters we can talk about Rosa Parks who is famous for not giving up her seat on a bus to a white man. This led to sit in’s which were ways of protesting which consisted of sitting in white reserved place as long as possible. Before the civil rights movement, the “brown vs board of education ” which is a law that allows black kids going to school with white kids. And after years of manifestation, the civil right movement, the freedom riders and all the protesters ended the racism in the united states.
    The human rights made giant steps in america in two centuries but unfortunately we still see a lot of racism against black people or Hispanic people, especially in the south of the country.

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  14. In my opinion, I think that black people were abused in America. Not even a century ago, the United States was a country full of racism.
    In the 1930 s, white Americans considered blacks as inferior human beings and treated them like slaves.
    This has led to a revolution reclaiming civil rights for black people.
    Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King fought for the African-American Civil Rights Movement , Rosa Parks was the first lady of Civil Rights and MLK was an activist and a leader in the African-Americans Civil Right movement . On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake’s order to give up her seat in the colored section to a white passenger, after the white section was filled. Martin Luther King as an American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using non violent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs.

    Black people had the worst jobs and the poorest standard of education. Black people also found it difficult to register to vote because they had to paid in order to be able to vote, and most black people were too poor to pay the tax. In order to be able to vote, people had to prove that they could read difficult extracts. If black people passed these tests, they would then be threatened and attacked so that they could not vote.

    Several racist measures were taken during this period :
    The Jim Crow laws :
    The Jim Crow laws weres series of orders and regulations promulgated in municipalities or the States of the South of the United State between 1876 and 1965. – These laws, which constitute one of the main elements of the racial segregation in the United States, distinguished the citizens according to their racial membership and while admitting their equality of law they imposed a segregation of swear in all the places and the public services.
    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka :
    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
    There were many groups of civil rights activists, the most famous is the Freedom Riders who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and following years to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960) which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional
    .
    To protest, the activists used many techniques, the famous one is the sit-in which is a form of direct action that involves one or more people occupying an area for a protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change.
    In sit-ins, protesters usually seat themselves at a strategic location (inside a restaurant, in a street to block it, in a government or corporate office, and so on). They remain until they are evicted, usually by force, or arrested, or until their requests have been met. Sit-ins have historically been a highly successful form of protest because they cause disruption that draws attention to the protest and by proxy the protesters’ cause.

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  15. It is a known fact that racism in United States isn’t new. Since the colonial era to the slavery era, African-American people were enslaved, working hard in farms, mines etc… The end of the Civil War between the Union and the Confederation abolished slavery in the USA but however, black people didn’t have the same rights than white people.

    Nearly 100 years after abolition of slavery, Black people in southern states were still treated unequally. In response to this, the American civil rights movement was born. The American civil rights movement was a mass protest movement against racial segregation and discrimination in the southern United States. This movement is the result of the efforts of African Slaves and their descendants to resist racial opression. Through nonviolent protest, the civil rights movement of the 1950s and ’60s fought for American-African rights. In 1954, African-American won a battle with the Brown v. Board of Education which ended legal segregation in public schools. The movement was finally victorious with the application of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, which is a landmark part of legislation in the United States that provided for equal housing opportunities regardless of race, creed, or national origin and made it a federal crime.

    The most known woman of this movement is Rosa Parks. She was considered as the Civil Rights Pioneer. This African-American refused to surrender her bus seat to a white passenger, spurring the Montgomery boycott and other efforts to end segregation. His arrestation started the movement.

    Another important character of the African-American civil rights movement is Martin Luther King, Jr. King was a Baptist minister and social activist, who led the Civil Rights Movement in the United States from the mid-1950s until his death by assassination in 1968.
    He’s known for using nonviolent civil disobedience.Through his activism, he played a pivotal role in ending the legal segregation of African-American citizens in the South and other areas of the nation. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, 4 years before his assassination by James Earl Ray.

    Plenty of nonviolent methods were used during the movement. We can quote the freedom riders, who were a group of 13 African-American and white civil rights activists who launched the Freedom Rides, a series of bus trips through the American South to protest against segregation in interstate bus terminals.
    The sit-in protestation was a new peaceful tactic used first by four African American college students who walked up to a whites-only lunch counter at the local WOOLWORTH’S store in Greensboro, North Carolina, and asked for coffee. When service was refused, the students sat patiently. They were insulted and intimidated but they sat patiently.

    The nonviolent measures helped the CVRM to win supporters in all the world.

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  16. In the USA, the country was known for its extreme racism . Black people were underestimated and considered to be slaves .

    Movements for civil rights were a worldwide series of political movements for equality before the law that peaked in the 1960s . Movements for civil rights in the United States include noted legislation and organized efforts to abolish public and private acts of racial discrimination against African Americans and other disadvantaged groups between 1954 to 1968, particularly in the southern United States.
    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in 1954 in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.

    Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and following years to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions .

    two peoples were famous for their fight against this situation :
    – Martin Luther King Jr who was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia.He was both a Baptist minister and civil-rights activist.He had a seismic impact on race relations in the United States, beginning in the mid-1950s.
    – Rosa Louise McCauley Parks February 4, 1913 was an African-American Civil Rights activist, whom the United States Congress called “the first lady of civil rights” and “the mother of the freedom movement”.
    in the end , black people got their rights and the equality was finally established

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  17. America was a country where the slavery was practiced during a long time, the slaves were more than abused by the “white” people.
    Martin Luther King was born in Atlanta, in 1929. He was the leader of the Civil Rights, he became the leader of a protest against the city bus system after a “black” woman was arrested for sitting in the “white” part of a bus. This was the first time that the “black” people in the south had united against the laws of racial separation.The white citizens blamed Martin for starting the protest. They thought it would end if he was in prison or dead. He was arrested twice on false charges.
    The Montgomery bus boycott lasted three hundred eighty-two days. Finally, the United States Supreme Court ruled that racial separation was illegal in the Montgomery bus system. Martin Luther King and his followers had won their struggle.

    Rosa Park was an African and American Civil Rights activist and was nickmaded the “Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement”. Parks is famous for her refusal on the first December 1955 to obey bus driver James Blake’s demand that she relinquish her seat to a white man .Her role in American history earned her an iconic status in American culture, and her actions have left an enduring legacy for Civil Rights movements around the world.

    The Freedom Riders were Civil Rights activists, it was a group of 13 American-African and white Civil Rights people who lauched the Freedom Rides, a series of bus trips through the American South to protest segregation in interstate bus terminals in the fourth May 1961. They tried to stop the segregation in the South by non-violent methods like the Sit ins which aims to sit in the “white” places like restaurants and support the hatred and the insults of the other people.
    But finally, the 2 July 1964, the american president Lyndon B. Johnson signed a historic law about the Civil Rights who ended the segregation in the USA.

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  18. Martin Luther King, Jr., (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs.
    Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African-American Civil Rights activist, whom the United States Congress called “the first lady of civil rights” and “the mother of the freedom movement”.[1] Her birthday, February 4, and the day she was arrested, December 1, have both become Rosa Parks Day, commemorated in both California and Ohio.
    The African-American Civil Rights Movement or 1960s Civil Rights Movement encompasses social movements in the United States whose goals were to end racial segregation and discrimination against black Americans and to secure legal recognition and federal protection of the citizenship rights enumerated in the Constitution and federal law. This article covers the phase of the movement between 1954 and 1968, particularly in the South.
    Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and following years to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional. The Southern states had ignored the rulings and the federal government did nothing to enforce them. The first Freedom Ride left Washington, D.C., on May 4, 1961, and was scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17.
    A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more people occupying an area for a protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change.
    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896, which allowed state-sponsored segregation, insofar as it applied to public education. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court’s unanimous (9–0) decision stated that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. This ruling paved the way for integration and was a major victory of the civil rights movement.

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  19. Martin Luther King, Jr. Was born on January 15, 1929 and died on April 4, 1968. He was an American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs.
    M. King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957, serving as its first president.
    Rosa Parks is called “the first lady of civil rights” and “the mother of the freedom movement”.  The Montgomery Bus Boycott, a seminal event in the U.S. Civil Rights Movement, was a political and social protestcampaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. The campaign lasted from December 1, 1955 when Rosa Parks, an African and American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person. The Montgomery Bus Boycott led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional
    There was an action similar to the The Montgomery Bus Boycott who involved African Amercians people occupying restaurants and protesting to promote the change. The major victory of the movement, will probably stay the Brown v. Board of Education ,a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional .

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  20. The United States was a country full of racism you can see it here :

    The Civil Rights movement were a series of protests done mostly by African Americans in the mid-1950s to late 1960s to attain civil rights equal to those of whites, including equal opportunity in employment, housing, and education, as well as the right to vote, the right of equal access to public facilities, and the right to be free of racial discrimination.

    Martin Luther King was an activist, humanitarian and leader of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He galvanized the nation with his “I Have a Dream” speech and won the Nobel Peace Prize. At 39 years old , he was assassinated, but he left a legacy of hope and inspiration that continues today.

    Rosa Parks was also an African-American Civil Rights activist and was arrested in 1955 in Montgomery for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white man. Her arrestation sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott and set in motion a chain of events that resulted in ground-breaking civil rights legislation and helped to bring Martin Luther King Jr. to the forefront as the movement’s leader. Parks continued to work for civil rights causes during her entire life and was awarded the nation’s highest honors for her role in the movement.

    Freedom Riders were public bus trips undertaken by racially integrated groups through the Deep South to test the enforcement of a newly enacted court order prohibiting segregation in interstate bus terminals. The riders were met with violence in a number of states, and they encountered some of the worst violence in Alabama. Freedom Riders was the most famous group of Civil Rights activists.
    We ca also find the Sit-Ins movement which was an organized demonstration in which participants seat themselves in an appropriate place and refuse to move to protest racial discrimination.

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  21. Black people were not allowed to do lot of things compared to white people. Rosa Parks and MLK were fighting all their lives against racial segregation.

    Martin Luther King, Jr.was an American, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement.
    Rosa parks was an African-American Civil Rights activist, whom the United States Congress called “the first lady of civil rights” and “the mother of the freedom movement”.
    The African-American Civil Rights Movement or 1960s Civil Rights Movement encompasses social movements in the United States whose goals were to end racial segregation and discrimination against black Americans. In the movie the butler we can watch that white people are being disrespectfull with black people when they sat in their places.
    (.A sit-in or sit-down is a manner to protest by standing )
    Why all that cruelty ?
    But everything changed few years ago now the President from the United States is black.

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  22. In the last century black people were treated like slaves and some of them begun to fight that racism by activism like the most famous activist of civil rights for black people Martin Luther King (MLK) the principal weapon of these black activists is the non violent disobedience like siting in the “white people seats” that were prohibited for black people in the buses or the restaurants. That kind of disobedience was considered by racist white people and the government as a sign of provocation and the black people were faced at a constant pressure and torture imposed by racists. Black people also had big difficulties for voting because they had to pay taxes and that was impossible for the black community due to their poverty during this period of 1930′ a lot of laws were voted a the most famous of them were the Jim Crow Laws which were made up of one of the most important elements of segregation in the United States distinguished the citizens according to their racial membership and while admitting their equality of law

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  23. Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (1913 – 2005) was an African American civil rights activist and seamstress whom the U.S. Congress dubbed the “Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement”.

    The Civil Rights movement in the American South was one of the most significant and successful social movements in the modern world. Black Georgians formed part of this southern movement for full civil rights and the wider national struggle for racial equality. From Atlanta to the most rural counties in Georgia’s southwest Cotton Belt, black activists protested white supremacy in a myriad of ways, from legal challenges and mass demonstrations to strikes and self-defense. In many ways, the results were remarkable. As late as World War II (1941-1945) black Georgians were effectively denied the vote, segregated in most areas of daily life, and subject to persistent discrimination and often violence. But by 1965, sweeping federal civil rights legislation prohibited segregationand discrimination, and this new phase of race relations was first officially welcomed into Georgia by Governor Jimmy Carter in 1971.

    The story of Brown v. Board of Education, which ended legal segregation in public schools, is one of hope and courage. When the people agreed to be plaintiffs in the case, they never knew they would change history. The people who make up this story were ordinary people. They were teachers, secretaries, welders, ministers and students who simply wanted to be treated equally.

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  24. American civil rights movement was a mass protest movement against racial segregation and discrimination in the south of United States that came during the middle of the 1950s. This movement helped African slaves and their descendants to resist racial oppression and abolish the institution of slavery.

    In sit-ins, protesters usually seat themselves at a strategic location (inside a restaurant…). They stay here until they are evicted, usually by force, or arrested, or until their requests have been met.

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans., case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954. Linda Brown was denied admission to her local elementary school in Topeka because she was black.

    Freedom Writers is a 2007 film. It is based on the book The Freedom Writers Diary by teacher Erin Gruwell . The title is a play on the term “Freedom Riders”, referring to the multiracial civil rights activists who tested the U.S. Supreme Court decision ordering the desegregation of interstate buses in 1961.

    Rosa Parks is an African American who was tired after a long day of work and decided to take a seat on the bus on her ride home. Because she sat down and refused to give up her seat to a white passenger, she was arrested for disobeying. Her nickname was the first lady of civil rights.

    MLK, was a pacifist Activists To The Black Civil Rights , Martin Luther King Played a major role rejecting the injustice of segregation in the United States . “I have a dream” became an hymn to solidarity and Hope of Understanding Between All Communities .

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  25. During the latest century, America has lived a big upheaval. Well known as racist people, white Americans denied any rights, pride and even freedom (though they weren’t slaves anymore) to black people. The racism in the American nation reached a peak with the amendment of Jim Crow Laws, which were racial segregation state and local laws enacted after the Reconstruction period in Southern United States that continued in force until 1965 mandating racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern U.S. states, starting in 1890 with a “separate but equal” status for African Americans. Conditions for African Americans were consistently inferior and underfunded compared to those provided for white Americans due to these laws.

    This is what led to the birth of the African-American Civil Rights Movement, a freedom movement to gain equality for African Americans, which began actually with the arrival of the first Africans to North America in 1619, culminated in the various and successful movements of the 1950s and 1960s, and continues into the twenty-first century. Some of the goals of the movement include securing equal protection of the laws, freedom from racial discrimination, equal access to public facilities, economic justice, education reform, fair housing,environmental justice, health equity, and the right to vote.

    Among the lead figures of this movement, there is Martin Luther King, Jr., (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968), who was an American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs; as an example, he led the Montgomery Bus Boycott, a seminal event in the U.S. Civil Rights Movement. It was a protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. The campaign lasted from December 1, 1955—when Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person—to December 20, 1956, when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional.

    Rosa Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005), was also an African-American Civil Rights activist, whom the United States Congress called “the first lady of civil rights” and “the mother of the freedom movement”. Her birthday, February 4, and the day she was arrested, December 1, have both become Rosa Parks Day, commemorated in both California and Ohio.

    One of the first key events of the African-American Civil Rights Movement was the Brown v. Board Of Education. In the Spring of 1951, black students in Virginia protested their unequal status in the state’s segregated educational system. Students at Moton High School protested the overcrowded conditions and failing facility. Some local leaders of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) had tried to persuade the students to back down from their protest against the Jim Crow laws of school segregation. When the students did not budge, the NAACP joined their battle against school segregation. Their determination paid, since Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), is now known as a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.

    The Brown v. Board of Education was only the first event the Civil Rights Movement really joined. To defend black people rights , the movement also used nonviolent protest methods, such as sit-ins and freedom rides. In sit-ins, protesters usually seat themselves at a strategic location (inside a restaurant, in a street to block it, in a government or corporate office, and so on). They remain until they are evicted, usually by force, or arrested, or until their requests have been met. Sit-ins have historically been a highly successful form of protest because they cause disruption that draws attention to the protest. They are a non-violent way to effectually shut down an area or business. The forced removal of protesters often arouses sympathy from the public. The most important sit-ins of the Civil Rights Movement are certainly Greensboro and Nashville’s sit-ins.The Greensboro sit-ins at a Woolworth’s in Greensboro, North Carolina, on February 1, 1960, launched a wave of anti-segregation sit-ins across the South and opened a national awareness of the depth of segregation in the nation.

    As for Freedom Rides, they were journeys by Civil Rights activists on interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the United States Supreme Court decision Boynton v. Virginia, (1960) 364 U.S., which ruled that segregation was unconstitutional for passengers engaged in interstate travel. Organized by CORE, the first Freedom Ride of the 1960s left Washington D.C. on May 4, 1961, and was scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17.

    With its nonviolent methods and peaceful work, the African-American Civil Rights Movements is certainly one of the most deserving of respect movements America has known.

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  26. In the beginning of the 20th century, USA knew racial segregation.
    Blacks were considered inferior, they didn’t have the same rights as the white people. They suffered from discrimination and racism because of their color skin.
    Segregation is setting apart or separation of people or things from others or from the main body or group.
    -Rosa Parks (1913-2005) was an African-American civil rights activist, who the United States Congress called ” the first lady of civil rights” and “the mother of of the freedom movement”
    -Jim Crow laws were racial segregation state and local laws enacted after the reconstruction period in Southern United States that continued in force until mandating concerning laws of racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern U.S .
    -Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka was a landmark U.S Supreme Court, were the court declared for the first time that state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
    -The African-American Civil Rights Movement or 1960s Civil Rights Movement was a social movements in the United States whose goals were to end racial segregation and discrimination against black Americans and to secure legal recognition and federal protection of the citizenship rights enumerated in the Constitution and federal law.
    -Martin Luther King Jr. was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia. King, both a Baptist minister and civil-rights activist, had a seismic impact on race relations in the United States,he was an American activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement.he is dead by assassination in 1968.

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  27. During the racial segregation in USA (1875-1960) the colored people weren’t allowed to do the same things in the same places as white people were, they didn’t have the same rights too and were separated from them. They worked even harder than white people, (they worked like slaves) and at this time, slavery was abolished.

    Then laws appeared to “humiliate” black people like:

    -the Jims Crows laws were racial segregation state and local laws enacted after the Reconstruction period in Southern United States, starting in 1890 with a “separate but equal” status for African Americans

    But there was progress like with Brown vs Board of Education was a case that protested black students being separated from white students.

    But colored people didn’t want to stay under the white man’s feet. So they decided to say “no” to the racial segregation with the Civil Rights movement, a social movements in the US whose goal was to end the discrimination against black Americans.

    Some activists became famous for their power like:
    – Martin Luther KIng (1929 -1968) was an American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs.
    -Rosa Parks (1913-2005) was an African-American Civil Rights activist, whom the United States Congress called “the first lady of civil rights” and “the mother of the freedom movement”.

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