Espaces et échanges
DECOUVRIR NOUVEAUX ESPACES
1. Les grands flux migratoires et leur évolution
Des migrations vers des espaces qui attirent ou une fuite loin d’espaces qui repoussent ? Qui migre, vers quelle destination, pour saisir quelles opportunités ? Et quels sont les obstacles à surmonter ?
Rôle de l’immigration dans le développement de la nation américaine
US society, a nation of immigrants
2. Franchir la frontière comme un acte de transgression
Comment et pourquoi transgresser la frontière ? Pour échapper à l’oppression ? Repartir à zéro dans un nouvel espace et se donner une chance de réussir ? Pratiquer et exprimer ses croyances ou ses convictions ?
The Notion of Space and Reciprocity
An exchange is the act of giving or receiving something in substitution for something else. In today’s modern-day world these exchanges can take several forms: economic – work exchanges, exchange of goods, trading across borders, cultural – exchange of ideas, information, education, movement of people – immigration, student exchanges, gap years… Our modern-day world is changing quickly and seems to be a smaller place due to improvements in technology and communication. These different cultural, economic, sociological and language interactions have transformed and characterised our modern-day world – sometimes for better, sometimes for worse.
What is space and reciprocity?
The Refugee Crisis:
“You only put your children into a boat and flee your home country when being on the water is safer than being on land.”
The refugee camps in Calais, France.
Building America – A Nation of Immigrants
Immigration streams to the USA – difficulties and hardships
How far would you travel to find a better life? What if the journey took weeks under difficult conditions? If you answered “Whatever it takes,” you echo the feelings of the 12 million immigrants who passed through these now quiet halls from 1892 to 1954. Ellis Island afforded them the opportunity to attain the American dream for themselves and their descendants. Come hear their stories.
Read more :http://www.nps.gov/elis/index.htm
Look at the pictures below:
How did these people feel when arriving by boat here?
What were their intentions?
How is the idea of immigrating connected to space and reciprocity?
Why did people immigrate/Why do people immigrate?
The many passports connote different nationalities; this links to the title’s reference to “identities”. Indeed, a large part of people’s sense of identity is defined by their nationality and where they come from.
Read the following headlines, say what they have to do with someone’s identity.
Brits’ invasion of Dordogne Affected by New Taxes
Number of Immigrants to the UK on the Increase, says Minister.
The headlines talk about immigration, both of poor people to richer countries and of expats living in France. This connects with the idea of identity being put into “question” because people are moving to foreign countries. The passports also reflect this as they are the means by which people travel. I think the word “identity” has become frequently used in recent years because there is much more movement of people around the world, both for economic reasons and lifestyle choices. The headline “Number of Immigrants in the UK on the Increase” supports this point.
What this means is that people’s identity is no longer simply defined by their nationality or where they are born.
Why Do People Oppose Immigration?
Opposition to immigration exists in most nation-states with immigration, and has become a significant political issue in many countries.Immigration in the modern sense refers to movement of people from one nation-state to another, where they are not citizens. The issue is complicated by the fact that there are various forms of immigration, and as such opposition to some forms of immigration does not always imply opposition to immigration as a whole. It is also important to distinguish between legal and illegal immigration in considering opposition to immigration. Illegal immigration is immigration in contravention of a nation’s immigration laws.
In the United States, opposition to immigration has a long history, starting in the late 1790s, in reaction to an influx of political refugees from France and Ireland. After passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798, opposition receded. Nativism first gained a name and affected politics in mid-19th century United States because of the large inflows of immigrants from cultures that were markedly different from the existing White Anglo-Saxon Protestant culture. Nativists objected primarily to Roman Catholics, especially Irish Americans. Nativist movements included the American Party of the mid-19th Century (formed by members of the Know-Nothing movement), the Immigration Restriction League of the early 20th Century, and the anti-Asian movements in the west, resulting in the Chinese Exclusion Act and the so-called “Gentlemen’s Agreement” aimed at the Japanese. Immigration became a major issue again from the 1990s, with burgeoning illegal immigration, particularly in the Southwest  The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986provided an amnesty described as the amnesty to end amnesties was passed in 1986 but had no lasting impact on the flow of illegal immigrants
Building walls to stop exchanges for economic, social, political and peace reasons.
The Berlin Wall
A Peace Wall in Belfast
A Mexico – USA border fence 2006
Watch some movie trailers about immigration:
Goal! The Dream Begins!, Danny Cannon (2005)
Under the Same Moon, Patricia Riggen (2007)
Crossing Over, Wayne Kramer (2009)
Stories From The U.S.-Mexico Border -NPR
Listen to people talk about immigration in America